Recently I have had cause to think about emigrant ancestors – after all, nearly all us have relatives somewhere along the line, who have packed their bags and embarked on a new life in distant lands. To date my blogs have focused on those that headed for the goldfields and farmland of New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. They have encompassed those who had no choice in the matter, those who embraced the pioneering spirit and forged successful lives for themselves overseas, those that returned home and those that tried but didn’t make it! However, barring a very brief foray into the story of brothers George Hodgson and Alexander Middleton, engineers on the Canadian railways, who returned to Scotland with a Canadian wife a piece in the shape of two Hazelwood sisters, I have done very little delving into others who made the journey to Canada, if in fact I have made the connection at all. A quick flick through the Dictionary of Canadian Biography using place names such as Alnwick as a search term brought up an array of familiar surnames, Selby, Stamp and Donkin in particular.
The Selby family are perhaps better known for their connections in the north of the County around Norham, Twisell, Beal and Berwick upon Tweed. The name Prideaux Selby is more associated with the Berwick Naturalists than the military adventures of his namesake and relative, although he too was born in Alnwick. Whilst not related to me directly, they do have links to the Younghusbands, the Wood family of Pressen and subsequently the Nicholsons of Thornton and Smiths of Windywalls of whom I wrote back in November 2016. That article also recounted the tale of synchronised suicide and the rather bizarre custom of Deodand. The Selbys are an interesting family – not least Frances Selby, who for her second husband married the ‘murderer’ of her first, a Captain John Hiniosi who had been stationed at Holy Island in 1689.
The other two both make it into my extended family tree too:
Edward Stamp was the son of Thomas Stamp and Mary Nicholson born circa 1813 in Alnwick. He was a Master Mariner and ‘industrialist’ who in the 1860’s became involved in the Canadian lumber business in British Columbia. A memorial plaque mounted on a rock in Stanley Park Vancouver reads
Captain Edward Stamp
His biography states that ‘several geographical features in the vicinity of Alberni have been named after him, including Stamp Falls Provincial Park which surrounds the falls on the Stamp River’. I can honestly say I had no idea of his business connections or timber operations in Canada as all his main ‘life’ events took place in England.
When it comes to explaining relationships in this particular branch of the tree it becomes complex to say the least, being littered with more cousin marriages than you could shake a stick at. For the purposes of this post it is quite sufficient to say that Mary Wood was the daughter of William Wood of Pressen, that Jonathon Middleton above is 1c4r to me, and his wife Jane Nicholson was his 1st cousin. Thus Edward Stamp was both his nephew AND his 1c1r. Furthermore, Jonathon Middleton was also uncle to the Alexander and George Hodgson Middleton the railway engineers mentioned in the opening paragraph. If that wasn’t enough Jonathon was also ‘step’ uncle to Alexander Beazeley who, with his parents and family emigrated to Prince Edward Island in 1850, and from where several letters written to Nicholson family members back home have survived. The letters provide a glimpse of the challenges faced by emigrants regardless of wealth or background. As Alexander writes to his cousins following his mother’s death ‘So you see that our Colonial life has not been quite such a cheerful one as we had anticipated. Sickness & death are sad destroyers of family comfort, & the gradual thinning of the family circle is not a pleasant thing to-look upon.’
Well that is quite enough on that little lot – they bamboozle me at times, so how anyone else can be expected to follow the connections I have no idea. There is a purpose to this explanation, however, and that is to illustrate how often there are ‘wheels within wheels’ and that other family connections may underlie decisions to seize opportunities, or even emigrate to far flung corners of the globe.
Of course, Biographical works often only portray the successful and other noteworthy individuals – they rarely tell the story of the ‘ordinary’ man. The third chap on the list John George Donkin, whilst an educated, clever and literate man, seems to have become notable for a very different reason.
Born in 1853 in Morpeth, he appears to have been the 2nd great nephew of William Donkin and his wife Barbara Carnaby whose daughter, (as some may remember from early posts), was killed by lightening on the eve of her marriage in 1837. This also places him as 3 times great nephew of the happy couple at the Northumbrian ‘wedding of the century’ back in 1750. Like his distant cousin, John George doesn’t seem to have fared particularly favourably in life either poor soul! He seems to have been somewhat of a drifter who struggled to find his niche during his short life of 38 years.
His biography states that
Donkin would have passed into obscurity had he not published, a year after his return to England, an account of his experiences under the title Trooper and Redskin in the far north-west: recollections of life in the North-West Mounted Police, Canada, 1884–1888. As an ordinary constable he had served during the rebellion, come into close contact with Riel, and lived the life of a mounted policeman in the early years of western settlement. His book, however, contains little of the self-glorification, heroism, and romance that is characteristic of most literature of the period on the NWMP. From the moment he arrived on the prairies, Donkin was struck by the contrast between his own experience and the way the country was portrayed by those “journalist globetrotters” who had set forth its “wondrous glories.” The result was an unembellished account of the daily routine of mounted police life, the harshness of the climate, the rude prairie settlements, and the loneliness of police detachments. With an eye for detail, Donkin described his experiences in a candid and critical manner, leaving behind a valuable record not only of the NWMP but also of western Canada at an important period in its development.
Copies of his wonderful book are readily available to purchase, but a copy is also available free of charge through Archive.org (see link in text above) and needless to say it proved an irresistible diversion to writing this blog! A quick ‘google’ brings up several posts about J G Donkin including the Christmas 2015 entry of the RCMP Veterans Association Facebook page. Tragically ‘Down on his luck, penniless and sick, he died on March 22, 1890 of alcoholism in the workhouse at Alnwick, Northumberland, England, just two years after leaving the Force.’ It would seem rather conversely that this rather unassuming and observant man has inadvertently left the most enduring legacy of the three!
With the exception of the Beazeley family, the accounts above relate predominantly to British Columbia and The Western Provinces of Canada. A look at the names featured when Berwick upon Tweed is entered in a search of the CDNB appear to be more concentrated to the east in Quebec and Ontario. James Cockburn lawyer, businessman, and politician; b. 13 Feb. 1819 at Berwick upon Tweed left for Montreal in 1832, surveyor Alexander Aitken, journalist Robert Middleton (mother thought to have been a Buglass) and Matthew Bell, leaseholder of the St Maurice Ironworks in partnership with David Monro were amongst their number.
A number of the individuals named above could hardly be described as true ‘emigrants’ as several returned to Britain. Most could certainly not have been described as from impoverished backgrounds, and a couple it would appear saw Canada merely as a commercial opportunity linked to their UK based businesses. They are hardly representational of the tens of thousands of emigrants that left British shores in the 19th century. Some of whom would pay the ultimate price, but for others Canada presented opportunities and brought success that could never have been realised at home.
Although British emigration began in the 18th century and legislation was in place to protect passengers from 1803, it was the ‘Act to Regulate the Carrying of Passengers in Merchant Vessels, 1828’ that marked the start of what would become known as ‘The Great Migration’ throughout the 1830s.
This was the first legislative recognition that the state was responsible for the safety and well-being of emigrants leaving the British Isles. The Act regulated the number of passengers that could be carried on a ship, determined the amount of space allocated to them, and required the provision of food and water for the voyage. While based on earlier legislation, the 1828 Act was the true foundation of British and colonial legislation, designed to protect emigrants from unscrupulous shipowners and shipmasters and from the perils of the North Atlantic crossing.
Emigration continued well into the the 20th century. At times it was incentivised, either through government channels with offers of free land, or by means of parish assistance given to the ‘deserving’ poor, whilst at others it was made more difficult than it was already, e.g. in 1832 a tax of 5 shillings per adult was imposed on those leaving the UK for Canada, with children taxed on a sliding scale. Nevertheless the majority of folks who headed for Canada in search of a 'better' life would have paid their own way. Canada, like any other country was subject to economic highs, lows and political strife and tension. The Library and Archives of Canada has an extremely informative site looking specifically at emigration through the ages and is a great place to start for those seeking to trace emigrant ancestors. Donkin’s words ‘journalist globetrotters’ and promised ‘wondrous glories’ was without a doubt not a word of a lie, but this was not necessarily limited to the newspapers. Pamphlets delivered to every farmer and blacksmith in the United Kingdom in 1897 on the instruction of the Canadian High Commissioner in London
… promised productive soil, adequate rainfall, a good growing season, bountiful crops and a healthy climate. Such words as "cold" and "snow" were universally banned from the pamphlets in favour of the more positive terms "invigorating" and "bracing." With their colourful covers and attractive photographs, the pamphlets visually reaffirmed the Prairie West as a land of prosperity and happiness.
The Ship’s List website is another highly informative website and although very few passengers are actually named, it holds lists of ships arriving in Quebec and Montreal in some detail from 1817. These have been extracted from the Canadian Press, along with other articles which tell the emigration story ‘warts and all’. The list makes interesting reading, not least for the details of imported goods the ships were carrying. Numerous arrivals are listed from Newcastle and Shields carrying coal which is perhaps no surprise, whereas this notice which appeared in the Berwick Advertiser in April 1834 may be somewhat unexpected for some.
It is often forgotten that Berwick’s former prosperity was largely due to its port. The ‘Port of Berwick’ is still in operation today (albeit it from the other side of the river) and cargoes are now more likely to be fertiliser, grains, cement, animal feed and timber from the Baltic and Mediterranean than people bound for Quebec! A quick check of The Ships List for 1834, confirmed the ship departed Berwick on the 26 April and arrived on 10 June, carrying a Miss Cockburn, a Mr & Mrs Hall and family, a Mr Forster and 214 settlers plus a load of ‘general’ cargo.
Further digging in old newspapers revealed that 20th century emigrants from the Border Region formed clubs and societies and regularly kept in touch with home. Mr William Hogg who hailed from Berwick upon Tweed founded such a group in Toronto in 1923.
Mr Hogg was a regular contributor to the newspapers keeping folks at home up to speed with events and news of friends and family overseas. Nor was emigration restricted to people – the newspaper plays witness to a String of pedigree Clydesdales in 1905, 7 couple of Lauderdale foxhounds bound for Montreal in 1925, but possible the strangest item to cross the water was a ‘relic’ of former times in 1924.
The 16th century carved bulls horn is now on display at the National Museum of Scotland, or at least it was in 2012 when this picture was taken by Kim Traynor, perhaps it couldn’t rest easy so far from home.
Should you encounter any unexpected or unusual links with Canada, do please let us know!
 Rev James A Raine, Pedigree of the Selby Family of Twisell Castle, Norhamshire, The History and Antiquities of North Durham as subdivided into the Shires of Norham, Island and Bedlington, which from the Saxon Period until the year 1844 constituted parcels of the County Palatine of Durham, but are now united to the County of Northumberland, London, 1852, p.315.
 Stanley Park Vancouver,
 The Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/stamp_edward_10E.html
 Dictionary of Canadian Biography http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/donkin_john_george_11E.html
 RCMPVets Facebook, https://www.facebook.com/RCMPVets/posts/homeless-veteran-left-account-of-christmas-eve-in-the-early-mounted-police-winni/981513715243338/
 Library and Archives Canada http://www.collectionscanada.ca/immigrants/021017-2111-e.html
 Library and Archives of Canada http://www.collectionscanada.ca/immigrants/021017-1100-e.html
 The Ships List http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/Arrivals/1834b.shtml
My DNA and that of my relatives never ceases to amaze me. Although I have very few matches at 4th cousin or closer, (not surprising given how few immediate relatives I actually have), smaller matches that originate deep in my family's past are now providing proof of links to ancestors many generations ago. Most of these matches are living overseas, which reinforces my theory that the sense of 'identity' is heightened by separation. A type of 'displacement' has occurred that heightens the sense of ancestral belonging which is the driving force behind why more people than ever are testing their DNA.
Many just want to test their 'admixture' or, as Ancestry calls it 'ethnicity', which represents the ancient migratory paths taken by our ancestors. Others are keen to use 'cousin matching' to reconnect with lost family members. Whatever your motives are for testing, do take some time to consider the potential downsides and the emotional upset it may cause before you 'spit'. A while ago, Margaret Ross contacted me for a little help which did lead to a revelation which could potentially have caused a great deal of family upset. I suggested she write about her experience so that others may be forewarned. She very kindly agreed. I hope you all enjoy the read.
Identity and the Pitfalls of DNA Testing
Firstly, this Will clearly demonstrates that Ralph Carnaby junior is not the son of Ralph senior, but the son of a Francis Carnaby and his wife Ann. The age of Ralph at his burial in 1763 would suggest a birth date of circa 1695. It is therefore most likely that he is Ralph senior’s grandson, rather than his son as the history would suggest. It is through this line of descent that heritable freehold of lands in Rothbury passed. It was still in their possession according to the tithe commutations records of the mid nineteenth century, when ownership passed to the Boak family of Rothbury under the Will of Ralph Carnaby of Shawdon (2x great grandson of the testator) in 1842.
Ralph Young is named as a grandson in the above Bond and is also clearly in his minority. It is to him that his grandfather passes the ‘farm he now enjoys’ which was presumably the tenancy of Todburn.
Secondly, the will also confirms that Ralph senior had at least three married daughters viz: Cecily Pringle; Jane Hardy; and Ann Young (see above). The relationship of Ralph and Jane Potts to Ralph Carnaby senior is not given, but when other offspring and their subsequent marriages are taken into consideration there is strong possibility of a further blood connection through a cousin marriage in the next generation. Indeed, there are several other connections that appear to have been missed (even by GAS) that I have traced and are fairly obvious once you get to know the family. Needless to say, this has added approximately a further 30 individuals to the increasingly more complex tree. (To avoid this information appearing publicly elsewhere, incorrectly attributed and without acknowledgement it is available on request only).
(Image shows an English Mortuary Hilted Backsword dating from the English Civil War.) http://www.antiqueweaponstore.com/English%20Mortuary%20Hilted%20Backsword,%20ca.%201640.htm.)
Iron hilt with large oval plate guard featuring crudely chiseled floral decor and busts of Charles I; integrally forged knuckle bow and side bars screwed to the chiseled ovoid pommel (one detached where it joins the pommel); the side bars joined to the knuckle bow by a pair of diagonal bars. Short scrolled rear quillon; later leather-wrapped grip with twisted wire. Tapering straight single-edged 30 ½" blade with two narrow fullers at the back running nearly the full length; the point rounded. Sword shows much age and wear, as typically found, with pitting and an untouched nearly black patina overall. Common cavalry weapon used by both sides during the English Civil War. Overall length 36 3/4".
- His wife at the time of his death was called Mary
- He was owed money from a Francis Carnaby and Richard Carnaby both of Hexham by bond
- He had a mortgage on a house at Green Harbour Court, London.
- His nephew was William Carnaby of Tosson who had a wife named Barbara.
- He had a niece called Isabella by his brother John
- He had a sister called Mary who benefitted from money owed to him by a John Carnaby, plumber in Carlisle which on her death would benefit John’s children. (Was this plumber another relation?)
- He had a niece called Mary (no father named) and a niece called Jane the daughter of his brother Richard.
- He had a sister in law called Frances who was the wife of Thomas Liddell a Glover in Hexham.
- He leaves money to a Thomas Beadland of Haggerston but no relationship is given – possibly a servant as it closely followed by a bequest of '£10 to my black boy Wandoe', his present manservant.
- He was due money upon a South Sea bill. This was to be paid to his cousin Jane of Hexham, widow, for her children. He also had a cousin called Elizabeth Lisle, a nephew James Winsellow, (who had a daughter called Mary Winsellow) and a cousin called Barbara Ord a spinster
- Ralph Carnaby junior did not marry Ann Dobson until 1719 six years after Roger’s death
- The surviving Mary of this union who married Lionel Aynsley was not born until 1735.
Plymouth, Jan 8. Yesterday came in here the Hunter of and for London, Roger Carnaby, Master, from Virginia” Daily Courant (London, England), Tuesday, January 12, 1703; Issue 230. 17th-18th Century Burney Collection Newspapers.
 Members of the Errington family were also recusants and known Jacobite activists. This particular branch farmed at Old Park, Netherwitton.
 Appointed plumber at St Mary’s in 1687, undertook leadwork on Tullie House, Abbey St in 1689. Dismissed by St Marys in 1713 for substandard work, reinstated in 1721. Son in 1717 worked on Carlisle Castle Downpipes. Father died 4 Oct 1742 aged 87. His children are mentioned in will of Roger Carnaby of Hexham dated 1713. Descendants of this Carlisle line married daughters of George Hare and Elizabeth Wright of Ingram. Is this Hare family related to the Hare family that married James Carnaby, Thomas Brewis and Thomas Collin in late 1700s and also potentially linked to the descendants of Francis Carnaby of Todburn?
- History of Northumberland Vol 4, Archive.org
- The research of Dr Annie Forster, held by Northumberland Archives, 22 Folders – Pedigrees (NRO. 1954/22 – 31), A synopsis of her papers can be found in Northern Catholic History, No.10, 1979.
- Sword Image and other information from 'The Antique Weapon Store'
- Other information has been drawn from the research of George Aynsley Smith which is held in the family's private Archive.
- Susannah EGERTON (1776- )
- Thomas EGERTON (1777-c. 1779)
- Jane EGERTON (1779- )
- Elizabeth EGERTON (1781-1865)
- Mary EGERTON (1788-1850)
- John EGERTON (1791-1881)
- James EGERTON (1793-1832)
- Lucretia EGERTON (1796-1861)
James’ older brother John was also a coach proprietor at the time of his brother’s untimely death. By 1827 he had moved from London to Brighton and was running a coach from the Spread Eagle Inn to Hastings.
- Frederick Egerton WOLEDGE (c. 1841-1883)
- William Egerton WOLEDGE (1842-1876)
- Emma Egerton WOLEDGE (1844- )
- Mary Egerton WOLEDGE (1845- )
- John Egerton WOLEDGE (1846- )
- Herbert Egerton WOLEDGE (1849- )
- Amelia Egerton WOLEDGE (1851- )
- Clara Egerton WOLEDGE (1852- )
- Earnest Egerton WOLEDGE (1854-1858)
- Percival Egerton WOLEDGE (1857-1928)
- Florence Egerton WOLEDGE (1857-1929)
- Mary Esther HINE (1842- )
- Alice HINE (c. 1844-1925)
- Henry William HINE (c. 1845- )
- Elizabeth Mary HINE (1846- )
- Marian HINE (c. 1848-1937)
- Frederick James Egerton HINE (c. 1849- )
- William Egerton HINE (1851- )
- Alfred HINE (c. 1853-c. 1864)
- Mary Gertrude HINE (c. 1855- )
- Frances Isabel Egerton HINE (1857-c. 1857)
- Frances Katherine Egerton HINE (1858- )
- Arthur Roffey Egerton HINE (1860-c. 1861)
- Edith Egerton HINE (1861-c. 1864)
- Ethel Mary Egerton HINE (1863- )
- Maud Egerton HINE (1867- )
 Arts & Crafts Network https://www.accn.org.uk/Ethel-Blount-Maude-King/
 Peasant Arts http://peasant-arts.blogspot.com/p/introduction.html
The awful and sudden death of a near relation of ours at Shawdon Wood House happened with that great thunderstorm on the 14th and 15th of this present month to Miss Barbara Donkin, Mr Donkin’s only daughter and niece to Ralph and John Carnaby who are own cousins to us
Died on Wednesday last our Friend and Cousin Ralph Carnaby Esq, of Shawdon Wood House a very stout and gross made man I should say nearly 20 stones but a real worthy character. A man I should say, never did ill to no person, but a good natured peaceable person long steward for the Hargreaves family of Shawdon, and I should say by them much regretted, he has left only brother John who was an attorney some time in Morpeth … R Carnaby formerly lived at Todburn who was born then his father James Carnaby married my mother’s younger sister they farmed Todburn, Hedley Wood and the West Field near Rothbury before they left for Shawdon … the only surviving of the family is John, a very quiet and inoffensive man but not brought up to Farming, consequently he will leave the place on May first and retire to some quiet place to spend the remainder of his days.
Died at Whittingham on Wednesday 7th February John Carnaby Esq our cousin …it is said he has left his property which is said 15 or 20,000 to Dr Trotter of Morpeth, should it be so, it is said he was not capable of making his will but the Dr had haunted him to settle his affairs upon the Hargreave family of Shawdon, how that may be time will determine, he has no relative but our family and more strange, never sent word that he was dead, or invited to his funeral!!!
An alarming and destructive fire took place at Shawdon Hall, the seat of W Pawson Esq on Sunday last… But the Hand of Providence is sure and retribution cometh in due time, the family of Dr Trotter and Mr Smart of Sunderland swindled our family of the cash and goods belonged our cousins Carnabys effects!!!!
- Jean b. 1773
- George b. 1775
- Margaret b. 1777
- John b. 1779
- Helen b. 1782
- Esther b. 1786
- John b. 16.1.1806
- Catherine b. 1808 died 1819 buried at Stichill with her grandfather.
- Elizabeth (Betty) b.1810
- George b.1814
- William b. 1819 later of Coldside Farm.
George Smeaton (1814-89) was born in Berwickshire, studied at Edinburgh University, and was ordained to the ministry of the Church of Scotland at Falkland in Fife in 1839. He was among those hundreds of ministers who came out at the Disruption in 1843 to form the Free Church of Scotland, and later that year was inducted to Auchterarder Free Church. He was appointed to the Chair of Divinity at the Free Church College in Aberdeen in 1853, and in 1857 became Professor of New Testament Exegesis at New College, Edinburgh, holding this post until his death in 1889.
His works on the atonement for which he is best known – The Apostles’ Doctrine of the Atonement and Christ’s Doctrine of the Atonement – are published by the Trust, together with his The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit.
He left for New Zealand in 1878 where he taught school for several years. Smeaton then travelled to Australia where he spent ten years as a journalist before finally returning to Britain in 1893. Moving to Edinburgh, he began writing about Australian life and literature for various publications in Victorian Britain, including a multi-volume effort popularly known as the "Famous Scots Series". He also began writing several adventure and children's fiction novels such as By Adverse Winds (1895), Our Laddie (1897) and A Mystery Of The Pacific (1899).
John Smeaton (1806-1841), born at Hume, Berwickshire
Civil Engineer to the London Dock Co
1842 John Smeaton of the London Docks, became a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers
Was the familial association dreamed up by the young Smeaton’s father to inspire them? We shall never know but the legend has endured to this day. The reason why Esther was at Eglinton Castle in 1817 remains a mystery and as no records for Smeaton can be found in Ayreshire it will likely remain so.
Born on the 14th May 1771, in Newtown, a small market town in Wales, Robert was the sixth of seven children born to the local saddler and ironmonger. He was an intelligent boy who read avidly, loved music and was good at sports. He began his career in the textile industry early on, from around the age of 10. By the time he was 21 he was a mill manager in Manchester. His entrepreneurial spirit, management skill and progressive moral views were emerging by the early 1790s. In 1793, he was elected as a member of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, where the ideas of reformers and philosophers of the Enlightenment were discussed. He also became a committee member of the Manchester Board of Health which was set up to promote improvements in the health and working conditions of factory workers. Meanwhile, in Scotland, New Lanark Cotton Spinning Mills were being established. This enterprise was to prove pivotal in Owen’s career as a businessman and social pioneer.
George Alexander Fleming was active in the early co-operative movement in Salford, including the Salford co-operative store and the co-operative school. He was instrumental in the founding of the Salford Community Association in 1836. Fleming was later prominent in the Association of All Classes of All Nations, and was editor of the New Moral World, and later of the Moral World. After the end of the Owenite movement, he was involved with the League of Social Progress and the Co-operative League. (John C Langdon) DPhil University of York, 2000.
In the 1840s, Robert Owen embarked on a new settlement at Queenwood Farm in Hampshire. This land was originally part of the manor of East Tytherley, called Columbers in the 15th century. He rented out the 1000 acres and built a luxurious mansion, Harmony Hall, as his centre for Social settlement. There was insufficient capital and the community, intended to support 500 members, barely reached a hundred souls. It was an abject failure, running out of funds and discipline. His followers Owenites were bitterly disappointed and he moved on. Robert Owen continued his evangelistic approach and was never silent on the subject of Socialism. http://www.hampshire-history.com/robert-owen-pioneering-socialist/
At the other end of the spanner, James, son of John Watson and Mary Renton of Milbank seems to have made a remarkable recovery from his fatal infliction as he appears as clear as day in his father’s will which was written in 1864!
‘By the time of the 1851 census Sunderland Borough encompassed the whole of Sunderland, Monkwearmouth and Bishopwearmouth and was home to 63,897 people. Of the trades and professions represented in the town, seamen were the biggest group with 3,060 sailors resident in the town. Shipwrights (shipbuilders) were the next biggest group with 2,025 employed in this trade.'
Some Useful and Interesting Sources
Street Maps of Sunderland in 1860 http://www.durham-images.org/public/ms/spin.html
Sunderland: A History of the Town, Port, Trade and Commerce
Personal recollections written by Taylor Potts of Sunderland in 1892
Looking for Durham Ancestors? I thoroughly recommend using Durham Records Online as their records contain full transcripts which often yield far more information than other online indexes.